Posts Tagged ‘History’

40 People Who Changed the Internet

The Creation of ARPANET

„To get to the origins of the Internet, we have to go back in time to 1957. You probably have no cause to remember, but it was International Geophysical Year, a year dedicated to gathering information about the upper atmosphere during a period of intense solar activity. Eisenhower announced in 1955 that, as part of the activities, the USA hoped to launch a small Earth orbiting satellite. The Kremlin announced that it hoped to do likewise. Planning in America focussed on a sophisticated three stage rocket, but in Russia they took a more direct approach. Strapping four military rockets together, on 4 October 1957 the USSR launched Sputnik I (a 70 kgs bleeping sphere the size of a medicine ball) into Earth orbit.“

Zugriff: 09.10.2010

Kategorien:Geschichte Schlagwörter: , , , ,

A Brief History of the Internet

„The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line’s circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet.“

Zugriff: 09.10.2010

Kategorien:Geschichte Schlagwörter: ,

History of Online Social Networking

September 13, 2010 Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

„The first online social network,, was established in 1997 (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). […]. The concept that all things are within „six degrees of separation“ was behind this innovative idea. The site attracted many users. A number of sites similar to were introduced to the public in the late 1990s and early 2000s, including LiveJournal, Asian Avenue, BlackPlanet, and LunaStorm. […]

MySpace was launchen 2003 by the Company eUniverse. Its user base grew exponentially within just a couple of years, transforming the Web site into the most popular online social networking community in the United States. […]. By 2006 MySpace had more than 20 million users. It was aquired by News Corporation for US$580 million in July 2005 (Rosebush, 2005).

Facebook, another popular social networking Website, was founded by a former Harvard student who used it as a tool to reconnect with former classmates. It was launched in February 2004 (Yadav, 2006). […]. Initially, to join the network, a person was required to have an active college e-mail address. In 2006, the network extended to high schools students and some larger companies. Now, anyone age 13 or older can join the network.

LinkedIn is a professionally oriented social networking site. It was founded in 2003 by Reid Hoffmann and Konstantin Guericke. […] LinkedIn tries to help people to connect with others who might help their careers […].

Other popular social networking sites include Furl,, Shadow, Scuttle, Yahoo! My Web 2.0, Ma.gnolia, Digg, StumbleUpon, and reddit.“

Baker, Kim and Butler, Iryna (2009): Social Networks. History of Social Networking. In: Deans, P. Candace (Hrsg.), Social Software and Web 2.0 Technology Trends. New York, Information Science Reference: 187-188.

Museum Funding Trends – USA

„Even well-endowed institutions are always in need of financial assistance. Museums have been hard hit by cutbacks in government spending. The budget of the NEA, the largest source of government funds, was slashed by 40 percent in fiscal 1996. Private philanthropy is also down. To make up for this loss, museums have sought new ways of raising money. „With less government money around, we all have to be more entrepreneurial and figure out ways to stretch our advertising dollars. We are slowly learning lessons others have known for years,“ David A. Ross, director of New York City’s Whitney Museum of American Art, told the New York Times.

Museums have entered into alliances with hotels, airlines, phone card companies, and credit card operations. Corporations, which once considered underwriting museum activities as primarily a gesture of goodwill, are increasingly finding their connections with museums an effective form of advertising. Also, branches of museum gift shops have opened up in many malls across the United States, with a portion of the proceeds going to the museums. […]

Zugriff: 04.09.2010

History of Weblogs (Blogs)

„Back of the earliest days of the internet, webblogs (World Wide Web logs or journals, also refered to as blogs) were simply lists of Web links that afforded early Internet useres easy access and navigation to new Web sites. In 1992, Internet pioneer Tim Burners-Lee actually developed and maintained the first-ever weblog know as the What’s New Page, available at […]. […] In 1994, Justin Hall created Justin’s Home Page (, which is generally considered one of the first filtered blogs […]. By the late 1997, blogs began to resemble their currant format in that post were now dated, filtered and personalized. […] Weblog, or blog for short, is now the universally accepted name for all Web sites that feature postings displayed in reverse chronological order.

While blogs experienced significant content refinement in the 1990s, growth was relatively modest; there were only 23 known blogs in existence at the beginning of 1999 […]. Contrast this to 2006, in which there were an estimated 50 million blogs, with new blogs comming online every second […]. This explosive growth can be attributed to two main factors: the debut of free blog-creation Web sites and users‘ desire for more interactive, unfiltered content. […]

Over just 15 years, blogs have evolved from a few internet sites containing web links to a network of over 50 million sites that allow users to gather information and post opinions on any and all subjects.“

Biedenharn, Joe; Snyder, Jeff and White, Alex (2009): Technology Tutorial. Weblogs (Blogs). In: Deans, P. Candace (Hrsg.), Social Software and Web 2.0 Technology Trends. New York, Information Science Reference: 153-154.

Siehe auch:

History of the World Wide Web – Internet

„In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (see the original proposal). He coined the term „World Wide Web,“ wrote the first World Wide Web server, „httpd,“ and the first client program (a browser and editor), „WorldWideWeb,“ in October 1990. He wrote the first version of the „HyperText Markup Language“ (HTML), the document formatting language with the capability for hypertext links that became the primary publishing format for the Web. His initial specifications for URIs, HTTP, and HTML were refined and discussed in larger circles as Web technology spread.“

Mehr auf der Quellhomepage.

Zugriff: 27.08.2010