“To get to the origins of the Internet, we have to go back in time to 1957. You probably have no cause to remember, but it was International Geophysical Year, a year dedicated to gathering information about the upper atmosphere during a period of intense solar activity. Eisenhower announced in 1955 that, as part of the activities, the USA hoped to launch a small Earth orbiting satellite. The Kremlin announced that it hoped to do likewise. Planning in America focussed on a sophisticated three stage rocket, but in Russia they took a more direct approach. Strapping four military rockets together, on 4 October 1957 the USSR launched Sputnik I (a 70 kgs bleeping sphere the size of a medicine ball) into Earth orbit.”
“The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line’s circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet.”
“Even well-endowed institutions are always in need of financial assistance. Museums have been hard hit by cutbacks in government spending. The budget of the NEA, the largest source of government funds, was slashed by 40 percent in fiscal 1996. Private philanthropy is also down. To make up for this loss, museums have sought new ways of raising money. “With less government money around, we all have to be more entrepreneurial and figure out ways to stretch our advertising dollars. We are slowly learning lessons others have known for years,” David A. Ross, director of New York City’s Whitney Museum of American Art, told the New York Times.
Museums have entered into alliances with hotels, airlines, phone card companies, and credit card operations. Corporations, which once considered underwriting museum activities as primarily a gesture of goodwill, are increasingly finding their connections with museums an effective form of advertising. Also, branches of museum gift shops have opened up in many malls across the United States, with a portion of the proceeds going to the museums. [...]“
“Back of the earliest days of the internet, webblogs (World Wide Web logs or journals, also refered to as blogs) were simply lists of Web links that afforded early Internet useres easy access and navigation to new Web sites. In 1992, Internet pioneer Tim Burners-Lee actually developed and maintained the first-ever weblog know as the What’s New Page, available at http://www.unc.edu/~zuiker/blogging101 [...]. [...] In 1994, Justin Hall created Justin’s Home Page (http://www.links.net/vita/web/original.html), which is generally considered one of the first filtered blogs [...]. By the late 1997, blogs began to resemble their currant format in that post were now dated, filtered and personalized. [...] Weblog, or blog for short, is now the universally accepted name for all Web sites that feature postings displayed in reverse chronological order.
While blogs experienced significant content refinement in the 1990s, growth was relatively modest; there were only 23 known blogs in existence at the beginning of 1999 [...]. Contrast this to 2006, in which there were an estimated 50 million blogs, with new blogs comming online every second [...]. This explosive growth can be attributed to two main factors: the debut of free blog-creation Web sites and users’ desire for more interactive, unfiltered content. [...]
Over just 15 years, blogs have evolved from a few internet sites containing web links to a network of over 50 million sites that allow users to gather information and post opinions on any and all subjects.”
Biedenharn, Joe; Snyder, Jeff and White, Alex (2009): Technology Tutorial. Weblogs (Blogs). In: Deans, P. Candace (Hrsg.), Social Software and Web 2.0 Technology Trends. New York, Information Science Reference: 153-154.
“In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (see the original proposal). He coined the term “World Wide Web,” wrote the first World Wide Web server, “httpd,” and the first client program (a browser and editor), “WorldWideWeb,” in October 1990. He wrote the first version of the “HyperText Markup Language” (HTML), the document formatting language with the capability for hypertext links that became the primary publishing format for the Web. His initial specifications for URIs, HTTP, and HTML were refined and discussed in larger circles as Web technology spread.”
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The Dot-Com Bubble Bursts
“Ayear ago Americans could hardly run an errand without picking up a stock tip. Day-trading manuals were selling briskly. Neighbors were speaking a foreign tongue, carrying on about B2B’s and praising the likes of JDS Uniphase and Qualcomm. Venture capital firms were throwing money at any and all dot-coms to help them build market share, never mind whether they could ever be profitable. It was a brave new era, in which more than a dozen fledgling dot- coms that nobody had ever heard of could pay $2 million of other people’s money for a Super Bowl commercial.
What a difference a year makes. The Nasdaq sank. Stock tips have been replaced with talk of recession. Many pioneering dot-coms are out of business or barely surviving. The Dow Jones Internet Index, made up of dot-com blue chips, is down more than 72 percent since March. Online retailers Priceline and eToys, former Wall Street darlings, have seen their stock prices fall more than 99 percent from their highs. Weiterlesen…
How the Web began
The first proposal for the World Wide Web (WWW) was made at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, and further refined by him and Robert Cailliau in 1990.
By the end of that year, prototype software for a basic system was already being demonstrated. To encourage its adoption, an interface to the CERN Computer Centre’s documentation, to the ‘help service’ and also to the familiar Usenet newsgroups was provided.
The first web servers were all located in European physics laboratories and only a few users had access to the NeXT platform on which the first browser ran. CERN soon provided a much simpler browser, which could be run on any system.
In 1991, an early WWW system was released to the high energy physics community via the CERN program library. It included the simple browser, web server software and a library, implementing the essential functions for developers to build their own software. A wide range of universities and research laboratories started to use it. A little later it was made generally available via the Internet, especially to the community of people working on hypertext systems. Weiterlesen…
WordPress started in 2003 with a single bit of code to enhance the typography of everyday writing and with fewer users than you can count on your fingers and toes. Since then it has grown to be the largest self-hosted blogging tool in the world, used on millions of sites and seen by tens of millions of people every day.